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Jamaica: origin of the blessed land

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About 600 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived; little is known of them, however, beyond the red pottery they left. Alligator Pond in Manchester Parish and Little River in St. Ann Parish are among the earliest known sites of this Ostionoid person, who lived near the coast and extensively hunted turtles and fish.

Around 800 CE, Arawak arrived, eventually settling throughout the island. Living in villages ruled by tribal chiefs called the caciques, they sustained themselves on fishing and the cultivation of maize and cassava. At the height of their civilization, their population is estimated to have numbered as much as 60,000.

The Arawak brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as “conuco.” To add nutrients to the soil, the Arawak burned local bushes and trees and heaped the ash into large mounds, into which they then planted yuca cuttings. Most Arawak lived in large circular buildings (bohios), constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, and palm leaves. The Arawak spoke an Arawakan language and did not have writing. Some of the words used by them, such as barbacoa (“barbecue”), hamaca (“hammock”), kanoa (“canoe”), tabaco (“tobacco”), yuca, batata (“sweet potato”), and juracán (“hurricane”), have been incorporated into Spanish and English.

Christopher Columbus is believed to be the first European to reach Jamaica. He landed on the island on 5 May 1494, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus returned to Jamaica during his fourth voyage to the Americas. He had been sailing around the Caribbean nearly a year when a storm beached his ships in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, on 25 June 1503. For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on the island, finally departing in June 1504.

The Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a supply base for food and animal hides. In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, the town of Sevilla la Nueva (New Seville), on the north coast. A decade later, Friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Spanish authorities about Esquivel’s conduct during the Higüey massacre of 1503.

In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega (later Santiago de la Vega), now called Spanish Town. This settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica, from its founding in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston.

The Spanish enslaved many of the Arawak; some escaped, but most died from European diseases and overwork. The Spaniards also introduced the first African slaves. By the early 17th century, when virtually no Taino remained in the region, the population of the island was about 3,000, including a small number of African slaves. Disappointed in the lack of gold on the isle, the Spanish mainly used Jamaica as a military base to supply colonizing efforts in the mainland Americas.

In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain’s colonies in the Caribbean. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain’s fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. After the Spanish repulsed this poorly executed attack, the English force then sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. In May 1655, around 7,000 English soldiers landed near Jamaica’s Spanish Town capital and soon overwhelmed the small number of Spanish troops (at the time, Jamaica’s entire population only numbered around 2,500).

Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658. In 1660, the turning point was when some Spanish runaway slaves, who became Jamaican Maroons, switched sides from the Spanish to the English For England, Jamaica was to be the ‘dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire,’ although in fact, it was a possession of little economic value then. England gained formal possession of Jamaica from Spain in 1670 through the Treaty of Madrid. Removing the pressing need for constant defense against Spanish attacks, this change served as an incentive to planting.

British Invasion

In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain’s colonies in the Caribbean. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain’s fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. After the Spanish repulsed this poorly executed attack, the English force then sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. In May 1655, around 7,000 English soldiers landed near Jamaica’s Spanish Town capital and soon overwhelmed the small number of Spanish troops (at the time, Jamaica’s entire population only numbered around 2,500).

Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658. In 1660, the turning point was when some Spanish runaway slaves, who became Jamaican Maroons, switched sides from the Spanish to the English For England, Jamaica was to be the ‘dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire,’ although in fact, it was a possession of little economic value then. England gained formal possession of Jamaica from Spain in 1670 through the Treaty of Madrid. Removing the pressing need.

Jamaica’s pirates

Following the 1655 conquest, Spain repeatedly attempted to recapture Jamaica. In response, in 1657, Governor Edward D’Oyley invited the Brethren of the Coast to come to Port Royal and make it their home port. The Brethren was made up of a group of pirates who were descendants of cattle-hunting buccaneers (later Anglicised to buccaneers), who had turned to piracy after being robbed by the Spanish (and subsequently thrown out of Hispaniola). These pirates concentrated their attacks on Spanish shipping, whose interests were considered the major threat to the town. These pirates later became legal English privateers who were given letters of marque by Jamaica’s governor. Around the same time that pirates were invited to Port Royal, England launched a series of attacks against Spanish shipping vessels and coastal towns. By sending the newly appointed privateers after Spanish ships and settlements, England had successfully set up a system of defense for Port Royal. Jamaica became a haven of privateers, buccaneers, and occasionally outright pirates: Christopher Myngs, Edward Mansvelt, and most famously, Henry Morgan.

Baptist War

In 1831, enslaved Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe led a strike demanding more freedom and a working wage of “half the going wage rate.” Upon refusal of their demands, the strike escalated into a full rebellion, in part because Sharpe had also made military preparations with a rebel military group known as the Black Regiment led by a slave known as Colonel Johnson of Retrieve Estate, about 150 strong with 50 guns among them. Colonel Johnson’s Black Regiment clashed with a local militia led by Colonel Grignon at old Montpelier on December 28. The militia retreated to Montego Bay while the Black Regiment advanced an invasion of estates in the hills, inviting more slaves to join while burning houses, fields, and other properties, setting off a trail of fires through the Great River Valley in Westmoreland and St. Elizabeth to St James.

The Baptist War, as it was known, became the largest slave uprising in the British West Indies, lasting 10 days and mobilized as many as 60,000 of Jamaica’s 300,000 slaves. The rebellion was suppressed by British forces under the control of Sir Willoughby Cotton. The reaction of the Jamaican Government and plantocracy was far more brutal. Approximately five hundred slaves were killed in total: 207 during the revolt and somewhere in the range between 310 and 340 slaves were killed through “various forms of judicial executions” after the rebellion was concluded, at times, for quite minor offenses (one recorded execution indicates the crime being the theft of a pig; another, a cow). An 1853 account by Henry Bleby described how three or four simultaneous executions were commonly observed; bodies would be allowed to pile up until workhouse slaves carted the bodies away at night and buried them in mass graves outside town. The brutality of the plantocracy during the revolt is thought to have accelerated the process of emancipation, with initial measures beginning in 1833.

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, Jamaican Black Nationalist and Separatist, ca. 1920. In August 1920, his ‘Universal Negro Improvement Association,’ , claimed 4 million members and 25,000 attended its Madison Square Gardens

Marcus Mosiah Garvey, a black activist and Trade Unionist, founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League in 1914, one of Jamaica’s first political parties in 1929, and a workers association in the early 1930s. Garvey also promoted the Back-to-Africa movement, which called for those of African descent to return to the homelands of their ancestors. Garvey, to no avail, pleaded with the colonial government to improve living conditions for indigenous peoples in the West Indies. Garvey, a controversial figure, had been the target of a four-year investigation by the United States government. He was convicted of mail fraud in 1923 and had served most of a five-year term in an Atlanta penitentiary when he was deported to Jamaica in 1927. Garvey left the colony in 1935 to live in the United Kingdom, where he died heavily in debt five years later. He was proclaimed Jamaica’s first national hero in the 1960s after Edward P.G. Seaga, then a government minister, arranged the return of his remains to Jamaica. In 1987 Jamaica petitioned the United States Congress to pardon Garvey on the basis that the federal charges brought against him were unsubstantiated and unjust.

Rastafari movement

Kingston/St Andrew, Jamaica – May 21, 2019: Kingston, Jamaica. Bob Marley reggae musician life-sized bronze statue. Legend celebrity ambassador monument sculpted by Alvin Marriott by National Stadium.

The Rastafari movement, a new religion, emerged among impoverished and socially disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities in 1930s Jamaica. Its Afrocentric ideology was largely a reaction against Jamaica’s then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey. The movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that the crowning of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy. By the 1950s, Rastafari’s counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s, it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Marley.

New unions and parties

The rise of nationalism, as distinct from island identification or desire for self-determination, is generally dated to the 1938 labour riots that affected both Jamaica and the islands of the Eastern Caribbean. William Alexander Bustamante, a moneylender in the capital city of Kingston who had formed the Jamaica Trade Workers and Tradesmen Union (JTWTU) three years earlier, captured the imagination of the black masses with his messianic personality, even though he himself was light-skinned, affluent, and aristocratic. Bustamante emerged from the 1938 strikes and other disturbances as a populist leader and the principal spokesperson for the militant urban working class, and in that year, using the JTWTU as a stepping stone, he founded the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union (BITU), which inaugurated Jamaica’s workers movement.

A distant cousin of Bustamante’s, Norman W. Manley, concluded as a result of the 1938 riots that the real basis for national unity in Jamaica lay in the masses. Unlike the union-oriented Bustamante, however, Manley was more interested in access to control over state power and political rights for the masses. On 18 September 1938, he inaugurated the People’s National Party (PNP), which had begun as a nationalist movement supported by the mixed-race middle class and the liberal sector of the business community with leaders who were highly educated members of the upper middle class. The 1938 riots spurred the PNP to unionise labour, although it would be several years before the PNP formed major labour unions. The party concentrated its earliest efforts on establishing a network both in urban areas and in banana-growing rural parishes, later working on building support among small farmers and in areas of bauxite mining.

The PNP adopted a socialist ideology in 1940 and later joined the Socialist International, allying itself formally with the social democratic parties of Western Europe. Guided by socialist principles, Manley was not a doctrinaire socialist. PNP socialism during the 1940s was similar to British Labour Party ideas on state control of the factors of production, equality of opportunity, and a welfare state, although a left-wing element in the PNP held more orthodox Marxist views and worked for the internationalization of the trade union movement through the Caribbean Labour Congress. In those formative years of Jamaican political and union activity, relations between Manley and Bustamante were cordial. Manley defended Bustamante in court against charges brought by the British for his labour activism in the 1938 riots and looked after the BITU during Bustamante’s imprisonment.

Bustamante had political ambitions of his own, however. In 1942, while still incarcerated, he founded a political party to rival the PNP, called the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The new party, whose leaders were of a lower class than those of the PNP, was supported by conservative businessmen and 60,000 dues-paying BITU members, who encompassed dock and sugar plantation workers and other unskilled urban laborers. On his release in 1943, Bustamante began building up the JLP. Meanwhile, several PNP leaders organized the leftist-oriented Trade Union Congress (TUC). Thus, from an early stage in modern Jamaica, unionized labour was an integral part of organized political life.

For the next quarter-century, Bustamante and Manley competed for centre stage in Jamaican political affairs, the former espousing the cause of the “barefoot man”; the latter, “democratic socialism,” a loosely defined political and economic theory aimed at achieving a classless system of government. Jamaica’s two founding fathers projected quite different popular images. Bustamante, lacking even a high school diploma, was an autocratic, charismatic, and highly adept politician; Manley was an athletic, Oxford-trained lawyer, Rhodes scholar, humanist, and liberal intellectual. Although considerably more reserved than Bustamante, Manley was well liked and widely respected. He was also a visionary nationalist who became the driving force behind the crown colony’s quest for independence.

Following the 1938 disturbances in the West Indies, London sent the Moyne Commission to study conditions in the British Caribbean territories. Its findings led in the early 1940s to better wages and a new constitution. Issued on 20 November 1944, the Constitution modified the crown colony system and inaugurated limited self-government based on the Westminster model of government and universal adult suffrage. It also embodied the island’s principles of ministerial responsibility and the rule of law. Thirty-one percent of the population participated in the 1944 elections. The JPL – helped by its promises to create jobs, its practice of dispensing public funds in pro-JLP parishes, and the PNP’s relatively radical platform – won an 18 percent majority of the votes over the PNP, as well as 22 seats in the 32-member House of Representatives, with 5 going to the PNP and 5 to other short-lived parties. In 1945 Bustamante took office as Jamaica’s first premier (the pre-independence title for head of government).

Under the new charter, the British governor, assisted by the six-member Privy Council and ten-member Executive Council, remained responsible solely to the crown. The Jamaican Legislative Council became the upper house, or Senate, of the bicameral Parliament. House members were elected by adult suffrage from single-member electoral districts called constituencies. Despite these changes, ultimate power remained concentrated in the hands of the governor and other high officials

The road to independence

After World War II, Jamaica began a relatively long transition to full political independence. Jamaicans preferred British culture over American, but they had a love-hate relationship with the British and resented British domination, racism, and the dictatorial Colonial Office. Britain gradually granted the colony more self-government under periodic constitutional changes. Jamaica’s political patterns and governmental structure were shaped during two decades of what was called “constitutional decolonization,” the period between 1944 and independence in 1962.

Having seen how little popular appeal the PNP’s 1944 campaign position had, the party shifted toward the centre in 1949 and remained there until 1974. The PNP actually won a 0.8-percent majority of the votes over the JLP in the 1949 election, although the JLP won a majority of the House seats. In the 1950s, the PNP and JLP became increasingly similar in their sociological composition and ideological outlook. During the cold war years, socialism became an explosive domestic issue. The JLP exploited it among property owners and churchgoers, attracting more middle-class support. As a result, PNP leaders diluted their socialist rhetoric, and in 1952 the PNP moderated its image by expelling four prominent leftists who had controlled the TUC. The PNP then formed the more conservative National Workers Union (NWU). Henceforth, PNP socialism meant little more than national planning within a framework of private property and foreign capital. The PNP retained, however, a basic commitment to socialist precepts, such as public control of resources and a more equitable income distribution. Manley’s PNP came to office for the first time after winning the 1955 elections with an 11-percent majority over the JLP and 50.5 percent of the popular vote.

Amendments to the constitution that took effect in May 1953 reconstituted the Executive Council and provided for eight ministers to be selected from among House members. The first ministries were subsequently established. These amendments also enlarged the limited powers of the House of Representatives and made elected members of the governor’s executive council responsible to the legislature. Manley, elected chief minister beginning in January 1955, accelerated the process of decolonisation during his able stewardship. Further progress toward self-government was achieved under constitutional amendments in 1955 and 1956, and cabinet government was established on 11 November 1957.

Assured by British declarations that independence would be granted to a collective West Indian state rather than to individual colonies, Manley supported Jamaica’s joining nine other British territories in the West Indies Federation, established on 3 January 1958. Manley became the island’s premier after the PNP again won a decisive victory in the general election in July 1959, securing thirty of forty-five House seats.

Membership in the federation remained an issue in Jamaican politics. Bustamante, reversing his previously supportive position on the issue, warned of the financial implications of membership – Jamaica was responsible for 43 percent of its own financing – and an inequity in Jamaica’s proportional representation in the federation’s House of Assembly. Manley’s PNP favoured staying in the federation, but he agreed to hold a referendum in September 1961 to decide on the issue. When 54 percent of the electorate voted to withdraw, Jamaica left the federation, which dissolved in 1962 after Trinidad and Tobago also pulled out. Manley believed that the rejection of his pro-federation policy in the 1961 referendum called for a renewed mandate from the electorate, but the JLP won the election of early 1962 by a fraction. Bustamante assumed the premiership that April, and Manley spent his remaining few years in politics as leader of the opposition.

Jamaica received its independence on 6 August 1962. The new nation retained, however, its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and adopted a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Bustamante, at the age of 78, became the new nation’s first prime minister.

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5 worst accidents in air-Travel History

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Here are 5 of the worst aviation disasters that were caused by mechanical failure, human error, or climatic conditions.

What is important to note is that each disaster ushered in new developments and standardizations in aviation safety and technology, making it the safest mode of travel today.

Tenerife Airport Disaster (1977)

This was one of the worst disasters in aviation history that occurred as a result of a series of unfortunate events, starting with an explosion at Gran Canaria airport in Spain. This resulted in a number of flights being diverted to Tenerife Airport, including the ill-fated KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736.

Due to dense fog, the absence of ground radar, and miscommunication, the two Boeing 747s collided with each other on the ground, claiming the lives of all 583 passengers on board in both flights of which only 61 passengers from the Pan Am flight survived.

Japan Airlines Flight 123 (1985)

The Boeing 747 was carrying 524 passengers, including crew when it crashed into mountainous terrain at Mount Takamagahara, north-west of Tokyo.

 The flight, which departed from Tokyo”s Haneda Airport, was en route to Osaka. Just 12 minutes into the flight, the unthinkable happened, the aircraft suffered explosive decompression. This resulted in the loss of the rudder and hydraulic systems, effectively crippling the pilot’s control over the aircraft. Despite this, the crew managed to keep the plane airborne for another half an hour, but it finally crashed into a ridge, killing 520 passengers, leaving just 4 survivors.

Charkhi Dadri Mid-Air Collision (1996)

The collision occurred soon after the Saudia flight took off from New Delhi, while the Kazakhstan flight was readying for its arrival. As a result of poor English communication skills on the part of the Kazakhstani pilots and the absence of secondary surveillance radar at Indira Gandhi International Airport the flight paths crossed and the pilots were unable to avert a collision. All 349 people on both flights perished in the disaster.

Turkish Airlines Flight 981 (1974)

As a result, the latch of the rear cargo hatch blew open mid-flight. This caused rapid decompression and severed cables that left the pilots with no control over the aircraft. The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 plunged into the Ermonville forest, just outside of Paris, France, claiming the lives of all 346 souls on board.
Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crashed outside of Paris because of a design flaw and the failure of Moroccan baggage handlers to properly read and understand instructions provided to them in both English and Turkish language.

American Airlines Flight 191 (1979)

The American Airlines Flight 191 crash remains the worst airline accident within the United States and it also brought disrepute to the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Disaster struck just moments after takeoff as one of the engines from the left-wing of the plane separated from the aircraft, flipping over the top of the wing. This caused significant damage and it also resulted in severing the hydraulic fluid lines. The aircraft instantly went into a roll, turned over and plummeted into a nearby field. Investigations revealed that the disaster was caused by faulty maintenance procedures followed by the aircraft personnel, claiming the lives of all 273 people on board, as well as 2 on the ground.

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Jack Ma Biography: Birth, Childhood, Education, Philanthropy, Business and Entertainment Career

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Jack Ma or Ma Yun is one of the world’s most powerful people and is the global brand ambassador for Chinese business. With a net worth of $42.1 Billion, Jack Ma is the second wealthiest person in China, as of April 2020. 

Jack Ma (age 55 years) is a Chinese businessman. investor and politician. Jack Ma, the co-founder of Alibaba was retired as its Executive Chairman in September 2019.

Jack Ma (age 55 years) is a Chinese businessman. investor and politician. Jack Ma, the co-founder of Alibaba was retired as its Executive Chairman in September 2019. After serving for around 13 years, Jack Ma has stepped down from Softbank Group’s board of directors. Alibaba is the multinational technology conglomerate. 

Jack Ma or Ma Yun is one of the world’s most powerful people and is the global brand ambassador for Chinese business. With a net worth of $42.1 Billion, Jack Ma is the second wealthiest person in China, as of April 2020. 

Jack Ma: Childhood and Education

Jack Ma was born on September 10, 1964, as Ma Yun in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Jack Ma started studying English at a very young age. At the age of 9 years, Jack Ma travelled 27 kilometres on his bicycle to guide tourists so that he can practise English. Jack Ma further became pen pals with a foreigner who nicknamed him Jack as the Chinese name was hard for him to pronounce.    

For getting admitted to college, Ma took three years to clear the Chinese entrance examinations as they were held once in a year. Jack Ma attended  Hangzhou Normal University (earlier Hangzhou Teacher’s Institute). In 1998, Jack Ma graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English. After completing his graduation, Jack Ma started teaching English and international trade at Hangzhou Dianzi University.

Jack Ma: Business Career

Jack Ma applied for 30 different jobs but faced rejection. He went for a job with the police and was told that he is not good. He went to KFC with 24 other people, everyone was selected except him. 

In 1994, Jack Ma heard about the Internet and started his own company ‘Hangzhou Haibo Translation Agency’.

In the year 1995, Jack Ma along with his friends visited the United States. In the US, he found information related to beer from several countries except for China. He was surprised to find no general information about China on the Internet.

In October 1999 and in January 2000, Alibaba won a total $25 million foreign investment twice. To improve the global e-commerce system, Jack Ma founded  Taobao Marketplace, Alipay, Ali Mama and Lynx. After its huge success, eBay offered to purchase Taobao but Ma turned down the offer. Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang invested $1 billion in Taobao. 

In September 2014, Alibaba was rising on the New York Stock Exchange over $25 billion in IPO and became one of the most valuable technology companies in the world. This was the largest initial public offering in US history. Jack Ma served as executive chairman of Alibaba Group, which holds– Alibaba.com, Taobao Marketplace, Tmall, eTao, Alibaba Cloud Computing, Juhuasuan, 1688.com, AliExpress.com, and Alipay.

Jack Ma: Philanthropy

Jack Ma founded a philanthropic organization ‘Jack Ma Foundation’ which focused on improving education, environment and public health.

In 2008, Alibaba donated $808,000 after the Sichuan earthquake caused destruction. In 2009, Jack Ma was appointed as the trustee of The Nature Conservancy’s China program, and in 2010, became one of the Directors of the organization. 

In 2015, Alibaba Hong Kong Young Entrepreneurs Foundation was launched to support the entrepreneurs of Hong Kong to help grow their business. The same year, Alibaba funded for the construction of the houses damaged by the earthquake in Nepal. 

In 2018, Jack Ma started the  Jack Ma Foundation and announced his retirement from Alibaba citing several reasons– educational work, philanthropy, and environmental causes.

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Top 5 Most Protected President in Africa 2020

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Alpha Conde

The president of Guinea, Alpha Conde rides on an armored Mercedes Benz and is guarded by high speed police motorcycle. When he is to visit the public he is guarded by more than 20 presidential guards.

Guinea: Umukambwe w'imyaka 82 ushaka manda ya gatatu y'imyaka itandatu -  BBC News Gahuza

Uhuru Kenyatta

Kenya: Establish Commission of Inquiry into Violations by Security Agencies  | Human Rights Watch

President Uhuru, the president of Kenya rides in armored land cruiser 200. His convoyed comprises of high speed police motorcycle, several of expensive cars like Mercedes Benz X class and guarded by more than ten presidential guards.

 Paul Kagame

He drives Rangerover which cost $550,000. He is always guarded by high speed Mercedes Benz, several police motorcycle and land cruisers.

President Paul is the president of Rwanda. He is the most loved president in Africa since he has taken it upon himself to call out bad leadership Africa and as well expose bad Western influence in African politics.

Cyril Ramaphosa

LIVE ARCHIVE: Ramaphosa says riots were a planned attack on SA's democracy  - Moneyweb

Cyril Ramaphosa is the fifith and current president of South Africa, one of the most beautiful and developed countries in Africa. He became the president of south Africa in 2019 and is on the list of the most protected African presidents.

Muhammadou Buhari 

Without security, nothing will happen ..., says Buhari at security meeting

Muhammadou Buhari became the president of Nigeria in 2015, Being the president of the most populous country in Africa, Buhari is definately one of the most protected presidents in Africa. His safety and protection is of utmost importance to the people of Nigeria. His presidential Motorcade is one of the largest and most impresive in Africa. Buhari’s security is very tight, His Motorcade always comprises of high speed police motorcycle, several presidential guards which he takes with him when he goes on Official Assignments both in and out of the country.

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