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Why we need an electoral revolution to see the presidency and parliament elude the usual suspects in the next elections

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“Three men appear to have held Kenya in the strictures of their politics. One is a prince by birth. Another is a prince who has taken on the mantle of defender of the poor. The third is a pauper by birth but has worked his way to the King’s Court.

“If we have learned lessons from the products of the Handshake and the behavior of legislators, the next General Elections should provide a revolutionary opportunity for Kenya to cleanse herself from bad politics.

Legislated theft of public funds is the root cause of corruption and a major stumbling block to attaining the middle income status envisaged in the Kenya Vision 2030.

The new politics

The new politics should provide an enabling environment for citizens to make a living from their hard-earned incomes. Embracing corruption-free society is the only option.

The Executive assents to Bills that allow legislators to rob public coffers in a conspiracy against Wanjiku. It is the root cause of entrenched corruption.

“The cost of corruption is measured not just in the billions of dollars of squandered or stolen government resources.

Fortunes of families and communities

But most poignantly, in the absence of the hospitals, schools, clean water, roads, and bridges that might have been built with that money and would have, certainly, changed the fortunes of families and communities” (UN Secretary-General Ban Ki- moon, December 9, 2012).

With proper representation, legislation and oversight of the Executive, Wanjiku should access the above enumerated goods and services without hand-outs from legislators.

These “usual suspects” conspiring to succeed themselves in Parliament and the Presidency represent this undesirable status quo.

Hustler dynasty contests

The coining of the ‘hustler and dynasty’ contests is in bad taste. These “usual suspects” have designed it to hoodwink Kenyans as their new fronts to use for perpetuating themselves in power.

Hustler is too negative a connotation to associate with entrepreneurs. It is the genesis of tenderpreneurs who have been captured in money laundering and conduits of stolen public funds.

Repeated use of this term does not make it positive. It is teaching our children to acquire wealth through hook and crook methods. The talk of hustler nation is, therefore, in bad taste and retrogressive.

Kenya is a republic not a kingdom

We should shun it. Kenya is a Republic and not a kingdom to be ruled by dynasties. Kenya is a constitutional democracy that is governed by the will of the people.

She is not ruled. Repeated labelling some “usual suspects” as dynasties will not convert Kenya into a kingdom.

It is a way of socializing and misleading our children that only privileged families can produce leaders.

Older haves and newer haves

The contest is between the older haves (“dynasties”) and newer haves (“hustlers”). We need to interrogate the initial sources of wealth for both the older and newer haves that are fighting to retain or acquire power through succession politics.

If these “usual suspects” succeed to continue in power, it will be business as usual. The current war against corruption will be lost forever.

Chapter Six on Leadership and Integrity was watered down by Parliament to save these “usual suspects” from scrutiny.

Values of integrity, hard work and self – sacrifice

The values of integrity, hard work and self-sacrifice were thrown out of the window. We must inculcate these values in our children from childhood to restore servant leadership in their time.

Today, a “successful leader” is one who is never ashamed of unleashing loads of cash to unsuspecting, unquestioning and innocent electorate for votes.

These hand-outs demean and relegate the recipients to second class status, deemed to be incapable of taking care of themselves.

Salary, pension, high perks and benefits

God forbid. Once elected, they settle on the mission to recover these moneys by legislating salary, pension, high perks and benefits for themselves.

These were not contemplated under Article 230(4)(a) of the Constitution. The Legislators justify the irregular and unconstitutional salary by the pretense that they pay school fees, medical bills, funeral and wedding expenses for their constituents.

They add these to the functions of legislators. They legislated salary on these grounds, but did not include the clause for auditing the very salary.

Constituents personal responsibilities

To ascertain their expenditure on the claimed constituents’ personal responsibilities. The Executive is guilty of assenting to this Bill into law for legal protection of theft of public resources.

For the economy to thrive, there must be a balance between the owners of capital and the workers. The latter provide labour that marshal land, capital and other factors of production to create wealth.

They earn a living by being paid a salary/wage from the proceeds of the goods and services that they produce.

Hand outs under proper laws

These are the voters who do not need hand-outs under proper laws and oversight of owners of capital that ensure that they are well salaried and remunerated.

The point here is to enlighten and empower the people to become self-reliant in meeting their family financial responsibilities.

The public goodwill is known to be short-lived when leaders squander the rare chance. Kenyans were rated as the happiest people (2003) and even assisted in arresting corrupt traffic officers.

Business as usual

Within no time, this fizzled out and business as usual resumed. Recently, knee-jerk reaction in the re-enforcement of the ” Michuki Rules” was reactivated with overwhelming public support.

Things are back to normal, with added mobile toll stations at higher rates. Kenyans celebrated the resolve of the President to slay the dragon of corruption.

There can never be a middle ground in fighting corruption and win it. The President has demonstrated his consistency in the war on corruption through the public goodwill presented by the Handshake.

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Caution against vigilante justice and pick fork protests

However, this may be deflected by his caution against vigilante justice and pick fork protests. The President should be suspicious of the applause he received by a section of the MPs through foot-thumping upon his pronouncement.

This group of legislators does not mean well on the war against corruption and may destroy the policy environment for the fight.

They know that the wheels of justice are too slow and take a long route with risks of frustrations and compromises along the way.

Justice

Justice, if at all, may even arrive when the President’s tenure is over, with nothing positive to remember about his fight against corruption.

It will also depend on who will succeed him. If s/he comes from the group that applauded him, the war will be lost for good.

For example, no case has been concluded for the NYS, KPLC, KPC, NCPB and KEBS suspects. Vigilante justice and pitchfork protests are some of the revolutionary weapons that the President should accept to succeed in the war on graft.

Usual suspects

The long legal route advocated by the “usual suspects” may only add to the skeletons of the Golden Berg, Anglo-Leasing and Chicken-Gate scandals.

He may only be remembered for having his cake and eat it in matters of fighting corruption. It has reached a point where bending (not breaking) the rules to get the right results is a priority.

The President does not need the courts to fire his appointees. He can sack the leaders at the apex of institutions mentioned in scandals.

Wrong sign of entitlement

The issue of stepping aside is a wrong sign of entitlement and indispensability of the individuals. It is unlawful, wasteful and ridiculous. Public offices are not their entitlement.

They are just privileged to serve in those positions. In any case some of our laws on corruption are made by thieves to protect thieves.

This is how MPs enact laws to be salaried and pensionable against tenets of Leadership. The Courts are guided by the same laws, however, flawed they may be.

High level of conspiracy against wanjiku

This is a high level of conspiracy against Wanjiku. Many people are in the state of despair. Suicides and homicides are testimony to this.

The only people living good life are Legislators and politically appointed state officers. The MPs get (do not earn) at least Ksh 1 million per month.

They turn their victims into diehard supporters through hand-outs. They become elated, unconscious that the hand-outs are products of legislated theft.

The trend

The trend may continue unless the voters get enlightened to throw out these usual suspects in the next Elections.

This is the only way to get servant leadership that will facilitate everyone to work hard and put money in their pockets and banish the begging culture.

The country has servant leaders who can change the fortunes of this great nation. However, hand-outs, parochial tribal and regional interests deny them platforms.

A country of many nations

This ensures that we remain a country of many nations. Shutting out these “usual suspects” through electoral revolution is the only way that the different ethnic groups will coalesce into one nation called Kenya.

Taxation is the only contribution made by all Kenyan nations. The use of the tax money is controlled by certain communities appointed into public institutions, based on their political persuasion.

Even though, the majority of families from the ‘favored communities’ still struggle like those from other communities, meaning that only exclusive elites access the opportunities.

Well coordinated networks

These elites create well coordinated networks to undermine the war against corruption. The NYS I is a case in point.

Kenyans have already forgotten about it after the protagonists buried the hatchet. Kenyans should look beyond party affiliations and loyalty and elect persons with visionary manifestoes.

These are people with track record in focusing on ideologies and deliverables as apposed to side shows and propaganda.

Ideological political parties

It is these foresight individuals who will come up with ideological political parties similar to the pre-independence KANU and KADU.

Voters in the next Elections should assess electoral aspirants on the basis of their motivation for electoral leadership.

The “usual suspects” are motivated by celebrity status and easy access to public coffers. Electing these “usual suspects” will put more Kenyans into despair and hopeless situations.

Professionals

Unfortunately, professionals who were elected to Parliament joined the self-serving bandwagon.

The high salary and benefits they get in Parliament is what they deserve while serving in their professional occupations.

They do not deserve them as MPs. The best they could have done is to sponsor Bills to improve salaries, remunerations and work environment for professionals to stem brain drain.

Squandered a chance

They have squandered the chance to right the wrongs and instead joined in perpetuating the absurdity.

The new blood (not based on age) in leadership may be the only solution to realize the Kenyan dream.

This justifies an electoral revolution that should see the Presidency and Parliament elude the”Usual Suspects”. Civic education on enlightenment and self-reliance of the Kenyan populace will be key.

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Robert Mugabe, Revolutionary Turned Despot For 37 Years!

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Robert Gabriel Mugabe ( 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019) was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician.

He served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.

Also as Leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) from 1980 to 2017.

African Nationalist

Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist. And as a socialist after the 1990s.

Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Educated at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare.

He worked as a schoolteacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered by white minority rule of his homeland, within the British Empire, Mugabe embraced Marxism.

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Independent State

And joined African nationalists calling for an independent state, controlled by the black majority.

After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974.

On release, he fled to Mozambique. Established his leadership of ZANU and oversaw its role in the Rhodesian Bush War. Fighting Ian Smith’s predominately white government.

Peace Talks

He reluctantly participated in peace talks in the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement, putting an end to the war.

In the 1980 general election, Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory, becoming Prime Minister. When the country, now renamed Zimbabwe, gained internationally recognized independence later that year.

Mugabe’s administration expanded healthcare and education. And, despite his professed desire for a socialist society, adhered largely to mainstream economic policies.

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Racial Reconciliation

Mugabe’s calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration. While relations with Joshua Nkomo’s Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) also deteriorated.

In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1987, Mugabe’s Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland. In a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians.

Internationally he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89).

Decolonization

He also chaired the Organization of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonization, Mugabe emphasized the redistribution of land.

Controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a “willing seller–willing buyer” basis.

Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms.

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Economic Decline

Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, economic decline, and foreign sanctions.

Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals.

To his rural Shona voter base and in 2017, members of his party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa.

Four Decades

Having dominated Zimbabwe’s politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure.

He was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule.

Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement and widespread corruption and human rights abuses, including anti-white racism and crimes against humanity.

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The supreme leader of North Korea Kim Jong Un

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Kim Jong-un born 8 January 1983, is a North Korean politician. He has been Supreme Leader of North Korea since 2011. Also the leader of the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK) since 2012.

He is a son of Kim Jong-il, who was North Korea’s second supreme leader from 1994 to 2011, and Ko Yong-hui.

He is a grandson of Kim Il-sung who was the founder and first supreme leader of North Korea. From its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.

First Leader of North Korea

Kim II Sung is the first leader of North Korea to have been born in the country after its founding in 1948.

Kim Jong Un was viewed a successor to the leadership of North Korea from late 2010. Following his father’s death in December 2011, state television announced Kim as the “Great Successor”.

Kim holds the titles of General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. He is the President of the State Affairs Commission.

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Presidium of the Politburo

And also, a member of the Presidium of the Politburo of the Workers’ Party of Korea. The highest decision-making body.

Kim received a promotion to the highest rank of Marshal in the Korean People’s Army in July 2010. Consolidating his position as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

North Korean state media often refer to him as “Marshal Kim Jong-un” or “Dear Respected Leader”.

Policy of Byungjin

He has promoted the policy of byungjin. Similar to Kim Il-sung’s policy from the 1960s, referring to the simultaneous development of both the economy and the country’s nuclear weapons program.

Kim rules North Korea as a totalitarian dictatorship. And his leadership has followed the same cult of personality as his grandfather and father.

A landmark United Nations Human Rights Council report, suggested that Kim be put on trial for crimes against humanity in 2014.

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Execution of North Korean Officials

He has ordered the purge or execution of several North Korean officials. He is believed to have assasinated his half-brother, Kim Jong-nam in 2017.

This was in Malaysia. He has presided over an expansion of the consumer economy, construction projects and tourist attractions.

Kim also expanded North Korea’s nuclear program. Which led to heightened tensions with the United States and South Korea.

Summits with South Korean and US Presidents

In 2018 and 2019, Kim took part in summits with South Korean President Moon Jae-in and US President Donald Trump.

He has claimed success in combatting the COVID-19 pandemic in North Korea Although many experts doubt the country has had no cases altogether.

Second of three children

Kim Jong-un is the second of three children Ko Yong-hui bore to Kim Jong-il. His elder brother Kim Jong-chul was born in 1981.

While his younger sister, Kim Yo-jong, was born in 1987. He is a grandson of Kim Il-sung.

Who was the founder of and led North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.

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North Korean Citizen

Kim is the first leader of North Korea, to have been born a North Korean citizen. His father having been born in the Soviet Union, and his grandfather having been born a Japanese subject during the colonial period.

All the children of Kim Jong-il spent their lives in Switzerland. As well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time.

First reports said that Kim Jong-un attended the private International School of Berne. In Gümligen in Switzerland, under the name “Chol-pak” or “Pak-chol” from 1993 to 1998.

Shy and Good Student

He is shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates, and was a basketball fan.

However, it is later suggested that the student at the Gümligen school, was not Kim Jong-un, but his elder brother Kim Jong-chul.

Kim Jong-un attended the Liebefeld Steinhölzli state school. In Köniz near Bern under the name “Pak-un”.

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1989 – 2000

Or “Un-pak” from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the North Korean embassy in Bern.

Authorities confirmed that a North Korean student from North Korea attended the school during that period.

Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th.

Final 9th Year

And part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in the autumn of 2000. He is a well-integrated and ambitious student and liked to play basketball.

However, his grades and attendance rating were poor. The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Chol, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor.

One of Pak-un’s classmates told reporters that he had told him, that he was the son of the leader of North Korea.

Awkward with girls

According to some reports, Kim s described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls.

And indifferent to political issues, but who distinguished himself in sports and had a fascination, with the American National Basketball Association and Michael Jordan.

Lived in Switzerland

In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland. Since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.

The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the University of Lyon, France, compared the picture of Pak-un taken at the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in 1999.

With a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 and concluded that the faces show a conformity of 95%. Suggesting that it is most likely that they are the same person.

Washington Post report

The Washington Post reported in 2009, that Kim Jong-un’s school friends, recalled he “spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of Chicago Bulls superstar Michael Jordan”.

Obsessed with basketball and computer games, he was a fan of Jackie Chan action movies.

Most analysts agree that Kim Jong-un attended Kim Il-sung University. A leading officer-training school in Pyongyang, from 2002 to 2007.

Two Degrees

Kim obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University. And another as an Army officer at the Kim Il-sung Military University.

In late February 2018, Reuters reported that Kim and his father, had used forged passport. Supposedly issued by Brazil and dated 26 February 1996.

To apply for visas in various countries. Both 10-year passports carry a stamp saying “Embassy of Brazil in Prague”. Kim Jong-un’s passport records the name “Josef Pwag” and a date of birth of 1 February 1983.

Photo Outside North Korea

Only one confirmed photograph of him is known to exist for many years. Outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven.

Other supposed images of him occasionally surfaced but disputed. It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts.

And publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim. Taken when he was attending school in Switzerland.

First Official Image

The first official image of him as an adult, was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010.

The party conference effectively anointed him and in which he is sat in the front row. Two places from his father. Followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.

Eldest half – brother

Kim Jong-un’s eldest half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, had been the favorite to succeed. But reportedly fell out of favor after 2001.

When he was caught attempting to enter Japan, on a fake passport to visit Tokyo Disneyland. In 2017, Kim Jong-nam was killed in Malaysia by suspected North Korean agents.

Kim Jong-il’s former personal chef, Kenji Fujimoto, revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un. With whom he had a good relationship.

Fujimoto

Stating that he was favored to be his father’s successor. Fujimoto also said that Jong-un was favored by his father, over his elder brother, Kim Jong-chul.

Reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character. While Jong-un is “exactly like his father”.

Furthermore, Fujimoto stated that “if power is to be handed over, then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts. Is a big drinker and never admits defeat.”

Smokes Yves Saint Laurent Cigarettes

Also, according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes. Loves Johnnie Walker whisky and has a Mercedes-Benz 600 luxury sedan.

When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un once questioned his lavish lifestyle.

And asked, “we are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding jet skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?”

Reports of a successor

On 15 January 2009, the South Korean news agency Yonhap reported that Kim Jong-il had appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.

On 8 March 2009, BBC News reported that Kim Jong-un was on the ballot for 2009 elections. To the Supreme People’s Assembly, the rubber stamp parliament of North Korea.

Subsequent reports indicated that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers.

North Korean Military

In the National Defense Commission, which is a banch of the North Korean military. From 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il.

As the head of the Korean Workers’ Party and de facto leader of North Korea. He has been named “Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji” (영명한 동지).

Which loosely translates to “Brilliant Comrade”. His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son.

Newly Composed Song of Praise

There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea were encouraged to sing a newly composed “song of praise” to Kim Jong-un.

In a similar fashion to that of praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung. Later, in June, Kim was reported to have visited China.

Secretly to “present himself” to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test. The Chinese foreign ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.

September 2009

In September 2009, it was reported that Kim Jong-il had secured support for the succession plan after a propaganda campaign.

It is believed by some that, Kim Jong-un was involved in the Cheonan sinking and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong.

To strengthen his military credentials and facilitate a successful transition of power from his father.

Central Military Commission

Kim Jong-un was made a daejang. The equivalent of a four-star general in the United States, on 27 September 2010.

A day ahead of a rare Workers’ Party of Korea conference in Pyongyang. The first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name.

And despite him having no previous military experience. Despite the promotion, no further details.

September 2010

On 28 September 2010, he was named vice chairman of the Central Military Commission. And appointed to the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party, in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.

On 10 October 2010, Kim Jong-un was alongside his father, when he attended the ruling Workers’ Party’s 65th-anniversary celebration.

This was seen as confirming his position, as the next leader of the Workers’ Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event.

Importance of Kim Jong Un’s presence

Further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un’s presence.[57] In January 2011. The regime reportedly began purging around 200 protégés.

Of both Jong-un’s uncle-in-law Jang Song-thaek and O Kuk-ryol, the vice chairman of the National Defence Commission.

By either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un.

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DR Congo worst dictator who served for 32 uninterrupted years!

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Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in the DR Congo; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) is a Congolese politician.

Also a military officer and the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 1971, and Zaire from 1971 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Organization of African Unity from 1967 to 1968.

In the Congo Crisis, Mobutu, as Chief of Staff of the Army and with support from Belgium and the United States, deposed the democratically elected government.

Patrice Lumumba

Headed by left-wing nationalist, Patrice Lumumba in 1960. Mobutu installed a government, executing Lumumba in 1961.

The executor government lead the country’s armed forces until he took power directly in a second coup in 1965.

To consolidate his power, he established the Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal political party in 1967.

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Change of Congo’s name to Zaire

He also changed the Congo’s name to Zaire in 1971, and his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972.

Mobutu claimed his political ideology is “neither left nor right, nor even centre”. Though nevertheless he developed a regime intensely autocratic, even by African standards of his time.

He made attempts to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence through his program of “national authenticity”.

Cult of a personality

Mobutu is the object of a pervasive cult of personality. In his rule, he amassed a large personal fortune through economic exploitation and corruption.

This led some to call his rule a “kleptocracy”. He presided over a period of widespread human rights violations.

Under his rule, the nation experienced uncontrolled inflation, a large debt, and massive currency devaluations.

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The US, France and Beligium

Mobutu received strong support (military, diplomatic and economic). This came from the United States, France, and Belgium.

Who believed he is a strong opponent of communism in Francophone Africa. He did build close ties with the governments of apartheid South Africa, Israel and the Greek military junta.

From 1972 onward, he secured support from Mao Zedong of China, mainly due to his anti-Soviet stance.

Afro Asians Nations

The dictatorial Congo was favored by the Chinese leader as part of Mao’s attempts to create a bloc of Afro-Asian nations led by him.

The massive Chinese economic aid that flowing into Zaire gave Mobutu more flexibility in his dealings with Western governments.

It allowed him to identify as an “anti-capitalist revolutionary”, and enabled him to avoid going to the International Monetary Fund for assistance.

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Economic Deterioration

By 1990, economic deterioration and unrest led Mobutu to agree to share power with opposition leaders.

But he used the army to thwart change until May 1997, when rebel forces led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila overran the country. And forced him into exile.

Already suffering from advanced prostate cancer, he died three months later in Morocco. Mobutu was notorious for corruption, nepotism, and the embezzlement.

Amounts Involved in Corruption

Mobutu embezzled between US$4 billion and $15 billion during his rule and known for extravagances such as shopping trips to Paris via the supersonic and expensive Concorde.

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